Pictures and Sound: Audiovisual Terminology

Click to learn more about the ATA Annual Conference!

Tomorrow November 8th, I’ll be presenting my first-ever American Translators Association conference session. If you’ve ever wondered what translating audiovisual content is all about, come join me for session T-10: “Pictures and Sound: Translating Television and Other Audiovisual Media” from 11:30 a.m. – 12:30 p.m.

So that attendees don’t have to give themselves hand cramps scribbling down new vocab or carry around yet another sheet of paper, I want to make a short list of the medium-specific terminology I use here. Please enjoy!

  • Dubbing/ADR吹き替え – Recording over a source for which audio has already been recorded, but is unusable or in another language.
  • Recording – アフレコ – Though the Japanese comes from “after recording,” this is recording voices for the first time to a video source (think cartoons in their original language).
  • Lip flaps (or “flaps” for short) – 口パク – The movements of the characters’ mouths onscreen. This term is mainly for animated video.
  • Subtitles – 字幕 (**Caution: サブタイトル in Japanese often refers to an episode title in a TV series or the secondary title/”sub-title” of a work.)
  • Script/screenplay – 台本/脚本 – We’ll be talking lots more about this in the presentation!
  • Dialogue/lines – 台詞
  • Licensor – English term for the rights holder of the TV or film. Licensors license distribution rights to other companies.
  • Licensee/distributor – The entity to which the licensor grants rights to distribute the film.

I look forward to meeting many of you. And if you translate from Japanese, Korean, or Chinese into any other language, don’t forget to bring your business cards!

What Good Is Literature?

Today, one of my advanced and highly motivated students embarked with me on his first foray into Japanese literature: we started reading the short story 「神様」 (“Kamisama,” or “God”), by Hiromi Kawakami. It’s the second time I’ve taught this story, which features a walk to the river with a delightfully polite bear.

It was hard work for him, of course, and it introduced a lot of new grammar his formal textbooks hadn’t covered. This particular student prefers non-fiction to fiction in English, so I’d warned him ahead of time that he might find it frustrating, but over a three-week holiday break he got through the first page just fine. I thought things were going pretty well until he said, “I don’t see how this is helping me speak Japanese.”

I was flabbergasted for a moment. In my head I heard the question, What good is literature? But I’ve always been a voracious reader of fiction—it’s never occurred to me to question literature’s usefulness. For me, and for many of my friends, being able to read foreign literature is one of the goals of learning a language. But today, for the first time, I personally witnessed the proof of the theory that you don’t need to care about literature to be passionate about learning a language.

In which case, what good is literature, to the language learner whose interests lie elsewhere?

My answer to my student was that studying this story would help his listening comprehension by introducing him to speech that people use in conversation or on TV, and he’ll now notice them using it and know what it’s doing. And I 100% believe that’s true. I also believe that literature, along with comic books and television, tells you how people actually speak in a way that textbooks don’t. But now that I’m not on the spot anymore, I think there’s more to it than that.

Literature is also good for us so that we don’t fall into ruts. When you’re speaking a language you didn’t learn as a child, it’s dreadfully easy to find yourself recycling the same limited phrases or constructions over and over. Even I find myself sometimes latching on to phrases and developing speech tics I have to force myself to shake off. You see, it’s easy to only use a small portion of what you actually know. To become repetitive, because (1) learning takes repeated practice, and (2) traditional textbooks won’t expose you to anything outside the box.

Fiction is usually where we find the most creative use of language, where authors actively try to put words together in provocative ways. I submit that whatever your level of enjoyment, literature can’t help but expose you to new patterns and new expressions. And so I think that literature can help us go beyond functional into articulate.

What do you think? Have stories been useful to you?

**Yes, in addition to my full-time and freelance translating, I also tutor in the Japanese language. It’s pretty fun. Feel absolutely free to question my work/life balance skills, though.

The Sorrow of the Lost Examples

Today I bring you some possibly useful facts if you work in Japanese, and a passionate eulogy you don’t need any Japanese to understand.

I think many people will agree with me when I say that it’s not always the definitions which are the most useful part of a dictionary: more often, the real treasure trove is the usage examples.

True, that’s apparently not always what people look for: About five years ago some non-translator coworkers at my company were over the moon about a new online English<->Japanese dictionary they’d found. I was new at the time, and I was the first translator the company’d had in house. We were all still learning about each other, really. And eventually someone asked me what I thought about this “great” dictionary.

A teaching moment! I thought. Hoping my new friends would not be offended, I told the truth: I hated it.

When you looked up a word in either language, it simply gave you a list of words that might show up as its translation in the other language, with no context, no sorting into different base meanings, and no usage examples, as if there were no differences between any of the (often conflicting) choices, and it was really all a matter of what you fancied that day. Worse than useless! If you really want to see how to use a word—and if, as a translator, you really want to brainstorm ideas and then be able to actually evaluate them—you need the actual definitions, yes, but even more than that, you need to see them in action. You need usage examples. (And not just any examples! You need quality professional ones. My students are routinely forbidden from relying on any dictionary that relies on the Tanaka corpus, which was compiled by students.)

Which is all to say that right now, I am in mourning. One of the two high-quality online dictionary services I’ve used for years now has lost half of its usage examples, and I feel it keenly. The thinning of the Yahoo! Japan dictionary is a blow to the Japanese-English translator.

I have a paid subscription to the Kenkyusha Online Dictionary, which is actually a collection of Kenkyusha J-E and E-J dictionaries (plus a Sanseido Japanese-Japanese dictionary) that I can search all at once. Three times the usage examples! It’s easily worth the money for the quality illustrations and usable ideas it regularly gives me. But I am greedy, and sometimes three dictionaries’ worth of examples is just not enough! I must have more! At those times, I’ve always gone to the free Yahoo! Japan dictionary to get my fix. It boasted two J-E dictionaries, neither of which were on KOD, and two J-J dictionaries, one of which overlapped KOD and the other of which contrasted interestingly.

But at the end of July 2013, variety died. The two Sanseido dictionaries on Yahoo! Japan, 大辞林 and ニューセンチュリー和英辞典, are no longer there. Essentially, that means there is now only one J-E and one J-J. Happily the remaining J-J is the contrasting one, but as for the loss of that second J-E dictionary… Well, it’s been three months now, and I’m not over it. My sorrow is unending.

Sanseido currently has their own paid web service; their “Daily Concise” dictionaries can be accessed for free, but the rest of its dictionaries require paid access. I believe the ウィズダム和英辞典 there is considered the ニューセンチュリー和英辞典’s successor.

I have no desire to pay for two dictionary subscriptions at once, so I won’t be purchasing the Sanseido service. However, anyone in the market for a paid subscription may want to check out both KOD and the Sanseido service to see which they might prefer. Me, I’ll probably stick to my KOD + Yahoo! Japan formula and sigh a bit each time.

I’ll tell you one cool discovery, though: I find looks great on my iPhone and is a lot more functional than Yahoo! Japan’s mobile site. To test, I looked up 襟首 (the nape of the neck) on both sites on my phone, and Yahoo! Japan’s dictionary didn’t even get any hits, though it finds the word immediately when I look it up on my PC’s web browser. Next time I need a quick online lookup on my smart phone, I’ll be heading over to Sanseido’s free offerings rather than Yahoo! Japan’s service.


…And that’s a wrap. Thanks for listening to my tale of woe, and feel free to leave a note or drop me a line about any dictionaries you’re in love with! I keep a list of them in every language for the incidental “There’s German mixed in with this Japanese!” moments.